Estimated reading time: 5 minutes, 25 seconds

P.S. I do a lot of research that is less participatory btw. For different reasons (as even the term violence is more meaningful if we are researching truly vulnerable populations like refugees, drug addictsx or the mentally ill and entirely exaggerated in terms of potential harm when we talk of adult learners in MOOCs – damage is possible but not anywhere near life-threatening then). And of course people aren’t always aware of their own situation. But they may also choose not to share w a researcher. Or the researchers questions may confuse them and lead them a certain path. We try, of course, to probe and ask open questions and follow up but it’s never enough. Even if research involves observation, not all behavior is observable. Today my kid didn’t finish her Arabic writing homework but she wrote the word in the air with her fingers and on a computer app. Visibly, u see the incomplete homework and u think sje isn’t engaged. But when she left the homework she took out an Arabic book and asked me to read it for her and to show her some words. That’s to me evidence of how assessment can go wrong by prescribing how learners express their learning