Very interesting comments Maha. Thanks for the link to curriculum theory. This is worth a read. I have not been aware of taking context into account when thinking of how to structure a curriculum. People may see these different approaches as competing views or methods while they are probably more like alternatives that need to align with some other criterion.

When we apply industrial training models (technical – product based approach) to K-12 education, we may have a misalignment. This isn’t a criticism of the curriculum design, but of the choice design. The design must be appropriate for the purpose. For example, ESL courses typically used a training model and of all models, this is probably the poorest choice for language learning.