Estimated reading time: 1 minute, 59 seconds

Estimated reading time: 1 minute, 59 seconds

Estimated reading time: 1 minute, 59 seconds

Estimated reading time: 1 minute, 59 seconds

This is very interesting, Maha. Thanks. I know the deterministic view is common in the Gulf – where they have the resources to buy everyone an iPad but lack the willingness to give teachers the agency, or the training, that they need to use these devices. I imagine that the same would be true in Egypt, if there were resources to give away free gadgets.

Language imperialism is concept developed and largely promoted in the West. From a Middle Eastern view, the use of English is probably a little more complicated. In any event, a focus on processes / relations rather than on content will lower the hurdle of language proficiency required to get a foot in the door, since users will need mostly passive knowledge of English or other languages in order to begin working in their native language. Once this starts, they will naturally develop independent resources of their own to reduce dependence on English language resources.